Engleski za izbornu...
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1. What are the features of pronunciation?
Phonemes, we devide them on consonants, consonants can be voiced and unvoiced, and vouwels, they can be single vouwels which can be short and long, and diphtongs. And we also have suprasegmentals, where we have intonation and stress ( word stress and sentence stress).
2. What are phonemes?
Phonemes are different sounds with in the language.
3. Illustrate how one sound changes the meaning of the word?
For example word RAT if we change the middle phoneme we get ROT, a different word. If you are I pronounce /r/ in a slightly different way, the word does not change and we still understand that we mean the same thing.
4. What is a difference between voiced and unvoiced sounds?
English sounds are organized into voiced and unvoiced. Voiced sounds occur when the vocal cords in the larynx are vibrated. With unvoiced sounds the vocal cords are not vibrated, so there is no vibration in the throat. Some consonants are voiced, but all vowels are voiced.
5. What are diphthongs and triphthongs? Example!
Vowel sounds are all voiced, and may be single like /e/ in LET or combination, involving anournmant from one vowel sound to another like /ei/ in LATE. Such combinations are known as diphthongs. Thriphtongs describe the combination of three vowel sounds such as in words OUR, POWER.
6. What are suprasegmentals?
Suprasegmentals features, as the name implies are features of speech which generally apply two groups of segments or phonemes. The features which are important in English are stress, intonation, and how sound changes in connected speech.
7. What is R.P.? Provide brief explanation and brief history!
If we compare the languages of countries or regions where English is used as first language, we can see that it has change significantly. In the past the preferred pronunciation model for teaching was Received Pronunciation or R.P. There are many different accents within the variority known as British English, and most of these give some clue as to the original origins of the speaker R.P. is different in that it says more about social standing than geography. It is still pronounced as signifying states and education and “the Queen’s English” or “BBC English” are often used as synonyms. However, the number of people who speak with an R.P. accent in Britain is currently estimated at about only 3% of the population and still declining. Still, R.P. has been the basis of much modern investigation into pronunciation and so influence persists.
8. What are homographs and homophones? Example!
Homographs are words which has a same spelling but with different pronunciation. Ex: Wind as in weather and wind as in what you do to clock.
Homophones are words which have the same pronunciation, but have different spelling. Ex: write and right, fair and fare…
9. What is word stress?
Word stress is when words have identifiably syllables and when one of the syllables in each word sounds lauder than the others. Like QUalify, baNAna, underSTAND. Stress can fall on the first, middle, or last syllable in words as is shown here.
10. What is sentence stress?
Sentence stress is accent on certain words within the sentence.
11. What are three features of stressed syllables?
Three features are loudness, pitch change, and a longer syllable.
12. What is the most common sound in English words and in which syllables does it most often occur?
The phoneme schwa is the most commonly occurring vowel sound in English. It never appears in stressed syllable, schwa is by nature an unstressed sound. It is important to remember that not all unstressed syllables contain schwa but it is our most common vowel sound.
13. What is the rule of stressing if the word has got prefix and suffix?
Prefixes and suffixes are not usually stressed in English. Ex: QUetly, ORIGinally, however there are exceptions: BIcycle, DISlocate…
14. What is the rule of stress with compound words?
Compound words are words formed from combination of two words, and tend to be stressed on the first element. Ex: POSTman, NEWSpaper, TEApot etc.
15. What are content words?
Words which are not function words are called content words or lexical words, these include nouns, verbs, adjectives, and most adverbs, though some adverbs are function words (then, why).
16. What are function words?
Function words or grammatical words are words that have little lexical meaning or have ambiguous meaning, but instead serve to express grammatical relationship with other words within a sentence, or specify the attitude or mood of the speaker. Function verbs may be prepositions, auxiliary verbs, conjunctions, grammatical articles or particles.
17. What is intonation?
The term intonation refers to the way the voice goes up and down in pitch when we are speaking.
18. What is assimilation?
The term assimilation describes how sound modify each other when they meet, usually across word boundaries, but within words too.
19. What is glottal stop?
A glottal stop is a speech sound articulated by a momentary, complete closing of glottis in the back of the throat. Glottal stops occur in many languages and usually pattern as consonants.
20. What is elision?
The term elision describes the disappearance of a sound. Ex: in the utterance: He leaves next week. Speaker would generally elide the /t/ in next saying; again here the reason is economy of effort.
21. What are linking and intrusion? Example!
Linking are some accents of English described as rhotic which means that letter r appears in the written word after a vowel. Ex: in word car, phoneme /r/ is used in pronunciation of the word /ka: r/. Intrusion is the process of change in pronunciation wherein unanticipated sounds come into a word, usually because of their phonetic environment (the cluster of sounds around them and the transitions between them).
22. What is intrusive r? Example!
Where two vowel sounds meet and there is no written letter /r/, speakers with non-rhotic accents will still often introduce /r/ phoneme in order to ease a transition, and that we call intrusive /r/. Ex: The media are to blame. It’s the question of law and order.
24. What accents are described as rhotic/unrhotic? Example!
Rhotic are dialects of American English, Irish, and certain British regional accents. Other accents are non-rhotic and so not pronounce the /r/. R. P. is non-rhotic.
Ex: Her English is excellent. My brother lives in London.